Classification of Fracture

Classification of Fracture | complete notes

Medical Student Corner(Notes)


In this article we are discus about what is fracture and classification of fracture.


Fracture is defined as the partial or complete discontinuity of the bone. Here, we discuss about the Classification of Fracture.

In other words, breaking of bone is known as fracture or a fracture is a break, usually in a bone.

It may also defined as a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.

There are many different types of fracture such as-

Classification of Fracture:-

The “Classification of Fracture” is as follows:-

A. Morphologically :-

Classification of Fracture
Classification of Fracture

On the basis of morphology or appearance, it is classified as follows-

1.Transverse 2.Stellate 3.Oblique 4.Spiral 5.Comminuted
Transverse- Line of Fracture is transverse.
Stellate- Line of fracture radiate from a point
Oblique- Line of fracture is oblique
Spiral- Line of fracture is Spiral
Comminuted- When bone is broken into more then two fragments.

B. Etiologically:-

On the basis of etiology or cause of fracture, it is classified as-

1.Traumatic 2.Pathologically


Fracture results from mechanical injuries.
Direct Violence:- It is occured when site of fracture is same or close to the site of violence, it is known as direct violence fracture.
Indirect Violence:- it is occured When site of fracture is away from site of violence, it is known as indirect violence fracture.
Example-Fracture of clavicle.
Muscular Violence:- Fracture that occurs due to sudden contraction of the muscle is known as muscular violence fracture.
Example-Fracture of patella.


It is caused due to any illness or disease. It may be of following types-

  • Inflammatory- Eg.-TB,Rickets
  • Metabolic- Eg.-Scurvy
  • Neoplastic- Eg.-Osteogenic Sarcoma
  • Congenital- Eg.-Metastatic bone tumors.

C. On the basis of Stability:-

It is further classified as-

Classification of Fracture
Classification of Fracture

1.Complete (Breaking of whole bone)

2.Incomplete (Partial Breaking of bone)


Complete fracture is defined as the complete discontinuity of bone.

It is of two types-

  1. Impacted- It is defined when proximal end of distal fragment get impacted into distal end of proximal fragment without producing any deformity.
  2. Non Impacted– Fragment are displaced from its original position and thus deformity produce.

D. On pressure of wound:-


It is said to be a simple or closed fracture, when site of fracture does not in contact with air.


When site of fracture is in contact with air.

E. Miscellaneous:-

Multiple Fracture:-

The simultaneous fracture of more than one bone or several bones at a time.


Fracture at two or more places in a bone.

Complicated Fracture:-

When the structures surrounding the site of fracture is injured.

Green stick Fracture:-

It is usually occurs in childhood. it is most common fracture in young children, The soft bone breaks on outside and bents.

Clinical Features-

1.Age- Fracture is common in old and children then in young persons i.e in extremes of age.

Eg.- Greenstick Fracture- Mostly in case of Children.

Fracture of neck of femur- Mostly in case of Old.

2.Sex:-Fracture of neck of femur and colles Fracture are more common in female.
3.History:- History of trauma, Violence, disease Etc.


1.Pain and tenderness, swelling and deformity.

2.Loss of function.

3.Abnormal mobility.

4.Restricted movement.



General– Nothing particular, if there is no shock.

  1. Inspection-Swelling,deformity or gout.
  2. Palpation-Tenderness
  3. Movement-Restricted
  4. MeasurementShortening if overlapping
  5. Special– Crepitation


  • X-ray
  • CT-Scan
  • MRI
  • USG- In case of complicated fractures.


1. On spot:-

  • Immobilization of the part.
  • Sedation except in case of head injury.
  • Extension of spine- in case of spinal injury.
  • Hospitalization.
  • During ambulation-drip.


  • Screening
  • Prophylaxis
  • X-ray diagnosis
  • Definitive treatment- As per the site of the fracture.
  • Management of complication if any.
  • Rehabilitation

Hence, this is all about Classification of Fracture. Please appreciate my work through comments if u like it really.

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